Sunday, February 28, 2010


The fi rst assumption is that issues have been i d e n t i fied and solutions to these fo u n d. The ro l e of commu n i c at o rs , p u blic re l ations offi c e rs and e d u c at o rs is then to pass these on. The role of e d u c ator is of course deeper as it invo l ves incorporating the knowled ge, skills and desired behaviour into the make-up of the people they teach . Ideally stakeholders together with communicators and educators take part in the process of issue identification and the development of solutions. Then together they will select various media, plan intellectual as well as emotional communications, identify target groups, design communication packages, test them for retention and impact value. Finally a campaign can apply these as required and as resources permit , and evaluate results .

Environmental citizenship
Design and implement a campaign for different key target groups from coastal areas (fro m
school children through tourists and tourism staff to decision-makers) to introduce this concept.
Environmental citizenship involves both the rights to enjoy and duties to protect the environment by all citizens.

The precautionary approach
Principle 15 of Agenda 21 (1992) states that ‘in order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied’ and ‘when threats are serious or irreversible damage is being done, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing
c o s t - e ffe c t ive measures to prevent (furt h e r ) degradation’. Each concerned group should discuss how to apply this approach to their immediate surroundings. Included here is the application of environmental accounting to all governmental, para-statal, institutional and corporate accounts.

Learning by doing
A basic and successful learning approach consists of learn e rs actually doing things (e. g.
cleaning beaches, replanting mangroves, putting up posters and bins, monitoring fish landing,
doing field ecological observations and measurements such as salinity, temperature of water,
species distri bu t i o n , ox y gen and E. coli in lagoon water etc.) as a means of obtaining firsthand knowledge, not book or electronic information.

Environmental reporting
The objective of environmental reporting is to train journalists, public relations officers and
others to provide information to the public, special groups and the decision-make rs ab o u t
coastal zone events. There are many vehicles for effective environmental reporting, e.g.
• State of the Earth reports
• environmental indicators
• Environmental Impact Assessment reports
• environmental audits
• printed press (newspapers, journalists)
• e l e c t ronic media (telev i s i o n , ra d i o , the Intern e t )
A strong recommendation is to have sound environment and development journalism in each
member state, as a means of keeping coastal zone issues and solutions continually alive.

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Sustainable Coastal Development : The Role of Communication and Education

A technical wo rkshop on ‘ S u s t a i n able Coastal D eve l o p m e n t : The Role of Commu n i c ation and E d u c at i o n ’ took place in Map u t o , M o z a m b i q u e, 18-20 Ju ly 1998. It fo rmed part of the Te ch n i c a l Wo rkshops segment of PAC S I C O M , the Pa n - A f rican Confe rence on Sustainable Integrat e d Coastal Manage m e n t , held in Map u t o , 1 8 - 2 4 Ju ly 1998. This volume presents the above - mentioned wo rk s h o p ’s input and output.

The aim of this document is to give easy access to the workshop’s results to those whose interest in coastal management is concentrated on the role of communication and education. An identical report of this workshop is included in the overall Conference proceedings, also being published by NESCO under a similar cover. PACSICOM was organized by the government of Mozambique in co-operation with the Government of Finland, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Conference was composed of three parts: technical workshops to address specific themes; a workshop on cross-cutting issues and interlinkages; and a ministerial conference, which nsidered political implications and socio-economic factors. This document has three part s : Pa rt A gives a b rief rep o rt of the wo rkshop and re l ated re s u l t s ; p a rt B contains the keynote pap e rs; and Pa rt C p resents the other submitted pap e rs.

In this ve rsion of the wo rkshop pro c e e d i n g s , all pap e rs are p resented in English. The formal output from the PACSICOM t e chnical wo rkshops was commu n i c at e d through a joint report, summary statements and specific recommendations to and endorsed by the ministerial conference. Thus, Sections 3 and 4 of Part A of this report are key elements of the ove rall confe rence rep o rt. The port folio of action proposals by the PACSICOM workshop on cross-cutting issues is included as Section 5 because it highlights an intersectoral viewpoint that is particularly relevant for communication and education. The reader will observe that, in this document, varying terms are used when referring to integrated coastal management, e.g. SICOM, ICSM, ICZM, ICAM and ICM (see Annex 2 – A c ro nyms). Each author’s choice has been respected.

Role and Communication of Education

Coastal regions and small islands face increasing demographic and economic pressure. Many
of the Earth’s most diverse, complex and productive ecosystems are found in coastal areas,
the resources of which are of utmost importance, particularly for food security. Small
Island Developing States – coastal regions in their entirety – by making the most of restricted
resources, provide lessons on living in a finite yet global world. Many African countries face serious coastal management and development problems, particularly as degradation of the coastal environment is causing a decline in the quality of life of local populations. Coastal erosion and desertification provoke biodiversity loss and drinking water problems. Local economies are adversely affected by over-exploitation of living resources, as well as by coastal development which ignores ecosystem functions and interactions, and by pollution of coastal aquifers etc. Transboundary impacts are caused by marine and fresh-water pollution, river damming, harbours and other major coastal developments. Short-term economic gains often take priority over long-term benefits.

C o m mu n i c ation and education are essential for raising public awa reness and improving the
c apacity of people to understand as well as ap p re c i ate issues and pro blems. These two
b road domains are also critical in any effo rts to re i n fo rce and develop the know l e d ge, va l u e s , at t i t u d e s , p ractices and skills re q u i red to participate fully in the sustainable development of coastal regions. Fo rm a l , n o n - fo rmal and continuing education at all levels and va rious communication means and channels (e. g. interpersonal , traditional , the print and electronic media as well as the new info rm ation tech n o l ogies – I n t e rnet etc.) are re q u i red for this purp o s e.

The initiat ive entitled Env i ronment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small
Islands (CSI) was launched in 1996 by UNESCO specifically to foster, for the sake of sustainable coastal development, the inclusion of expertise from several major domains into the arena of debate and action. The focus swings from natural and social sciences to culture, communication
and education – and back again, with the sharing and interweaving of knowledge and experience.
The CSI-Info series was created to disseminate information of interest to managers and
other stakeholders in the coastal zone. This document presents the proceedings of a technical
workshop on the theme of its title, held at the Pan-African Conference on Sustainable Integrated
Coastal Management (PAC S I C O M , which took place in Maputo, Mozambique, 18- 24 July 1998). This workshop was conceptualized, organized and funded on the CSI platform in association with the PACSICOM Co-ordinating Committee, U N E S C O ’s Commu n i c at i o n
and Education programmes and several of the Organization’s Field Offices in Africa. Particular acknowledgement is due to Professor E. Salif Diop for his contribution to the preparation of this workshop, as well as his leadership from the Chair. The results of the workshop point to a programme dimension in which further concentration is needed. The ultimate value of follow-up
efforts will be proven when ensuing actions contribute to a better lifestyle for the men, women
and children who live on the African coastline, now and in the future.

Curriculum for social communication

How could a Curriculum for Communication in seminary education look like?

1. It first has to be stated again, that there is the basic need for communication formation on the
human and spiritual level. This is not done with a course alone but through the whole
formation program and an open communicative atmosphere in a seminary. The three basic
steps of human and Christian communication, to go, to embrace and immerse and to lift up
(cf. Mk 1,31) are not only taught but practiced in daily life. If especially at the beginning of
theological studies an introductory course could be given to make the students more aware of
the basics of this human/Christian communication it would set the tone for all the following
studies and activities in theology. In fact, I am teaching such a course since almost 20 years at
the Divine Word School of Theology in Tagaytay, Philippines. Every school year the
students of the first year of theology have in the first semester an obligatory course
“Introduction to Social Communication” where we talk mainly about human communication,
the theological dimension of communication and only in passing about the basics of media
and group communication. (This is reflected in the textbook we use: “Communicating in
Community,” where the first two chapters are more extensively covered, whereas the others
are given only in the basics as far as time allows.)

2. We can not escape the fact, that the modern world is a world of communications. Pope John
Paul II calls the world of communication “the first ‘areopagus’ of the modern age which is
unifying humanity and turning it into what is known as a ‘global village’. The means of
social communication have become so important as to be for many the chief means of
information and education, of guidance and inspiration in their behavior as individuals,
families and within society at large. In particular the younger generation is growing up in a
world conditioned by the mass media.” (Encyclical Redemptoris Missio 1990, 37c) This
requires from every theology student more than from others the ability of critically seeing and
using the means of communication in daily life. It is the purpose of Media or Communication
Education to bring this basic knowledge and develop a critical mind especially in young
people. It actually should be an obligatory course and training already on the high school and
college level. Such education introduces into the workings of modern media, their structures,
means and methods. It shows e.g. the basic elements of a news item, how the different radio
and TV programs are produced but also how communication companies are structured and
try to exercise power in conquering the mind and taste of people for their purposes…

3. After this basic training there is a need for a special course on pastoral communication
especially in the later development of theological studies: how to communicate in Ministry
and Mission. How do the modern means of communication influence and determine those
people we live with and we are to care for? How can we make good use of these means in
our ministry to serve the needs of people better and bring them nearer to the Lord? The
people we work with are living in a world determined by the media and even we are
consciously or unconsciously part of it ourselves. How can we let the Holy Spirit come into
such a situation? The same holds also for those ministries, who serve people from or in other
cultures. Our communication has to adjust and be determined by these cultures because it is
always the recipient who is the ‘basis’ for our decision making and our communication
approach. Jesus starts with the life and concerns of the people. We have to do the same in our

4. In addition to these basic courses and approaches for every seminarian there should be also
some offers for more specialized courses, especially for students with greater interest and
some communication capabilities of their own. Thus there could be a film-club as a regular
activity where seminarians once or twice a month watch a movie, discuss the content,
methods in presenting the story and a critical evaluation. Cardinal Roger M. Mahony from
Los Angeles has written 1992 a “Pastoral letter for Film Makers, Film Viewers: their
challenges and opportunities” (cf. Eilers: Church and Social Communication. Basic
Documents. Manila 1997) which could be very helpful for such an activity. Talented
seminarians could also themselves practice radio and television productions or become part
of such either on their own or in existing companies. Journalistic practices can be developed
and taught. When I was a seminarian we had a “Press-group” where we wrote news items and
articles for existing newspapers and periodicals; they were printed and published and we were
very proud of it. Many of us saw our names printed for the first time…
Today we have new communication and information technologies. How are we going to ‘use’
them in our ministry and how can they help? What’s about E-vangelism, cyber-missionaries or
similar activities and possibilities?
Other fields like Media or Communication Ethics should also not be overlooked. They can be
part of Moral Theology but really would need a broader study in our times.

5. The need for serious research in the field of social communication and theology has also to
be mentioned here. When Pope John Paul II talks about the “new areopagus” he also
mentions that there is now a “new culture”. This culture “originates not just from whatever
content is eventually expressed, but from the very fact that there exist new ways of
communicating, with new languages, new techniques and a new psychology.” Such a
situation calls for deeper research and study which is very often missing in our Christian
communication activities. We very often live and work more according to trial and error than
based on serious study and research. This is not only a call on theological faculties or other
specialized bodies. Also seminary students should be involved in research and looking deeper
into issues. They can be encouraged to write respective papers or even do their thesis on a
communication related subject. They can be involved in surveys to discover a certain
communication situation. Thus I did two years ago with my students a study on how young
people in the areas around the theological school and in some parts of Manila use and see
modern media in their lives. Unfortunately we have only very few scientific publications
specializing in this field. It is high time that we go deeper to explore the ‘market’ but also to
see better the different possibilities for God’s Word in our time.
Following an initiative from our FABC Office of Social Communication where we – also with
the help of WACC! – called a group academicians from different Asian countries in 1999 to start
at St. John’s University in Bangkok an “Asian Research Center for Religion and Social
Communication” (ARC). It is supposed to be a clearing house, to collect and disseminate relevant
information, and animate people to explore the relationship between Social Communication and
Religion. And this is not for Christianity only but for all religions. It is not only Christianity
which lives in a new modern communication society. Also other religions are in many ways
affected by modern developments in communication! ARC recently started a scientific journal,
which should contribute to the concern.
What are we to do?
There is a certain sequence already in the programs proposed. But this is not done just with
adding new courses. More important is to change our own and other peoples mind-set. In the
spirit of the Jesuit considerations mentioned above we must see that social communication is not
only a specialized field but rather the “air we breathe” and the “water we swim in.” Right from
our upbringing we are influenced and to quite an extent determined by the ways and means of
communicating in our own cultures but also by the modern means of communication, which
today even go beyond the mass media. We can not live without Internet any more. What are the
pastoral and theological consequences of this fact? This question has to be answered first and
foremost by seminary professors but also by every seminarian.
The task before us is great but urgent. There is no time any more to be lost and we should begin
here and now to change and slowly adjust our mind-set to the realities of this ‘new culture’ with
“new ways of communicating, with new languages, new techniques and a new psychology.”
(John Paul II)

Monday, February 22, 2010

Research Methods in Education (6th ed)

Any research text which has reached a sixth edition must be doing something right and this book has been an international best seller for most of its history. The fifth edition published in 2000 demonstrated to readers that the authors were adept at maintaining currency and were not simply prepared to serve up a time honoured menu of superficial coverage of the broad range of possibilities for educational research. This tends to be the dominant model for research methods texts. The 6th edition of this text is even more impressive and goes even further with additional chapters on analysis; an extension to the paradigms debate including an introduction to the emergence of complexity theory (though I feel the paradigms discussion could have been taken a
little further), and an important cross referencing feature which connects the text to a support companion web site.

Structurally the book is well laid out, and a particularly impressive aspect is that it begins with a lengthy discussion of the nature of inquiry which is followed by a detailed discussion of ethics. Given that this text is likely to be used predominantly by post graduate students this is to be applauded. It is easy for research methods texts to get into the so called "nuts and bolts" of research too early without laying the ground of the nature of inquiry and therefore the quest for "knowledge" and the ethics which underpins such an endeavour. It makes the reader think long and hard about the questions related to:

Why do research in the first place? In the first section, a lengthier discussion on the nature of uncertainty and the attraction of post-structuralism would have been welcome, perhaps as a precursor to the section on feminist research, and connected to the discussion on complexity theory. I am not especially supportive of post-structuralist thought but it has become a significant feature in the educational research landscape.

An important feature of the book for me is its non-partisan tone. It seeks not to extol the virtues of one approach over another, rather the authors talk about the purpose of research and the importance of fit between the research questions being asked, the data needed to answer the questions and the methods required to gather such data. This is important as it is easy for research students to lapse into discourses which seek to marginalize certain types of research often for uninformed reasons. At the same time, the authors do not simply accept that research, whatever its nature, is unproblematic and in Part One the authors highlight the more important criticisms of the major paradigms.

The Australian Educational Researcher,Volume 36, Number 2,August 2009 •The obligatory sections on validity and reliability and sampling are present and a lengthy section which details, with considerable precision, the various "styles" (their term) of educational research. This is followed by strategies for data collection and this section is full of practical examples and mini scenarios which are particularly helpful. Readers can get advice from how to construct a questionnaire, to what statistical test to use, to interviewing techniques. I believe there are two shortcomings in this section that are worth noting. First, the section on personal construct theory would benefit from a lengthier discussion on how the repertory grid can be used as a tool to generate narrative. The grid is widely recognized as a "conversational tool" and there is plenty of published educational research that has used the repertory grid in this way. Secondly, the section on discourse analysis is scant at best with only limited attention (by implication through a reference to Habermas) given to critical discourse analysis with no mention of the major writers in this area. Perhaps we can look forward to this addition in the seventh edition.

The final section on data analysis is also short in one or two areas and this connects with my comment about post-structuralism earlier. For instance, there is no mention of how alternative data which could be gathered as part of a case study would be analyzed. An example would be the use of visual images such as pictures, photographs or video evidence. Additionally, how pictures drawn by participants (such as school children) as a form of representation could be analyzed to understand children’s school experiences is also unexplored. In fact, in the section on qualitative data, it is not apparent that material other than spoken (and transcribed) text can be construed as data. However, there is plenty of published material in education research journals that has made use of such data. Again, perhaps this may be part of the next evolution of this book.

I would not want to end this review on a negative note and really my comments above simply confirm that educational research is an ever-widening field with increasing legitimacy for diverse methods and forms of data. To their credit, the authors of this book have shown, as they have with previous editions, that research needs to be thought through carefully, that there are accepted methods for particular purposes, and that educational research continues to expand in scope, method and choice of topics. To cover every nuance of educational research would require a book three times the size of this one. This is not the authors’ intention. Rather, they want to see a researcher being well grounded in the discourses surrounding the nature of inquiry and to have a good grasp of how this articulates with the methods of inquiry. To this end, the book is
exemplary and should be on the reading list of all post graduate students and it would not be out of place on a research academic’s bookshelf.

Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison, Routledge Publishers(part of the Taylor & Francis group), Oxford, UK, 2007, 638 pages,IBSN 978-0-415-36878-0, AUD80.00 (paperback)

Tony Rossi
The University of Queensland

Role of information, education and communication

Although a central part of a population programme, the limitations of IEC often make it a
weak point. IEC is an action programme with three parts:

Information. The aim is to provide easy access for all sectors of the population to know l e d ge
l i ke ly to improve their lives and fight mistaken beliefs or ru m o u rs wh i ch may adve rs e ly infl uence people’s attitudes and behav i o u r. Inform ation is often provided ve rt i c a l ly corre s p o n ding to the Shannonian linear commu n i c at i o n model wh i ch fa c i l i t ates sending data and k n ow l e d ge from a transmitter to a re c e ive r t h rough a ch a n n e l .

Education. Teaching is conveying knowledge, but education aims at intellectual growth, along
with physical, moral and aesthetic training. It i n cludes eve rything that influences people
throughout their life – things that come from their family, school or job, as well as mass communications and religious, economic, social and political institutions which they are part of.
Communication. Communication is a process of active and interactive exchange between one or
more transmitters and several receivers with the aim of getting people to adopt desirable and recommended attitudes and behav i o u r. Va ri o u s m e t h o d s , l i n g u i s t i c, c o m p u t e r, p e rs o n - t o - p e rson, can be used. IEC involves a wide range of action: the definition
of a people’s socio-cultural identity (their knowledge, attitudes, practices, beliefs, assets
and limitations); the conception and execution of social communication programmes; the production and use of teaching materials and the spread of messages to persuade the population
to change habits, attitudes, beliefs and practices that are considered unsuitable or harmful to sustainable development.

The IEC approach highlights: the aims of e a ch sector, the institutional fra m ewo rk in
which the activity takes place, the programmes carried out, and the assets and limitations of
such programmes.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Broader Approach to Communication

These basic considerations need still a further dimension to show that communication education
is not only about Mass Media but needs a much broader approach which includes especially also
the cultural dimension. The Second Vatican Council was the first Catholic Church assembly of
that level which issued a document on “Social Communication,” Inter Mirifica.

The expression Social Communication was proposed by the preparatory commission for the
document in saying that expressions like Mass Media, Media of Diffusion, Audio-visual means
and similar would not be sufficient to express what the Church is concerned about. This proposal
was accepted and became the standard expression in the Catholic Church but it was later adapted by secular communication institutions especially in Latin America.

Social Communication refers, beyond mass media, to all means and ways of communication in
and of human society. It includes communication through traditional means like storytelling,
dance, theater, music etc. as well as the modern means. It covers the whole range of human
communication in society and thus creates a special challenge also for the communication
education in seminaries.

Future Christian ministers must be open and possibly be trained in the proper application of
communication means and methods which are part of our cultures. Many times, especially in
rural areas, this communication is still more effective than modern technical means because it
includes the direct personal involvement of the communicating parties. Such an awareness and
support of traditional communication can also help to mitigate or even integrate possible negative effects of globalization especially on young people.

Christian faith has to be contextualized and inculturated which is not done necessarily with the
modern means. This broader approach to communication, however, which gives equal ‘right’ to
the basics of human communication and the traditional means of communication leads towards

Essential need for human communication

To communicate is essential to Christian ministry. If we look into the early Church as reflected
in the Acts of the Apostles we find that at that early stage everybody was a communicator of
her/his faith. “Those who had been scattered preached the word wherever they went” it says in
Acts 8,4 referring to the persecution in Jerusalem (cf. also Acts 11,19-21!). Even when exiled,
persecuted and driven away they communicated and shared their faith and conviction to people
around them. In fact they saw it as a special calling and grace to become this way missionaries of
the early faith community. It was the Holy Spirit who guided and ‘inspired’ them beyond any
technical means. “Now an angel of the Lord said to Philip…” (8, 26); “Encouraged by the Holy
Spirit” the church grew in Judea, Galilee and Samaria (9, 31); “While they were worshipping the
Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said: Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul…” (13, 2) “Paul and
his companions traveled throughout the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been kept by the
Holy Spirit from preaching the Word in the province of Asia…” (16, 6) This should not be
different in the communication of the Church today! Therefore a proper communication
education has to start on this personal and spiritual level. It has to start with the Holy Spirit!

Here we might also look in a special way into the ways and means of Jesus’ communication.
How did the master himself communicate? He is not the “perfect Communicator” because he was successful in the modern sense of the word. He did not convert the Pharisees and the scribes but he communicated the love and care of the Father and His Kingdom. He became the perfect
communicator because he lived and practiced the basics of any human and Christian
communication! He communicated in word and deed. The circumstances of his life, his birth in
the manger, his death on the cross are a communication of God’s love and his humility to become
one of us. It is “giving of self in love” which is at the essence of Jesus’ communication of any
Christian communication as one of the church documents described it (Communio et Progressio,
1971, no. 11).

Jesus’ healing and dealing with people reflects the basics of Christian communication. The
healing of the mother in Law of Peter (Mk 1, 31) is just one example: He goes to her, holds her
by the hand, and lifts her up i.e. heals her. These are the basics of any human and Christian
communication which have to be developed already from the early stages in the seminary as an
essential habit of a minister:

 Go to a person
 Place yourself into her/his situation (‘shoes’), and
 Lift her/him up, help and heal in the power of God/Christ.

If all our ministries and even our own lives and dealings with each other would be based on these
three steps our own communities and the world probably would be different!
This shows also that seminary education in communication is not first and foremost a technical
task but rather a concern for a deep spirituality and faith.

It might be good at this stage also to remind ourselves that there is a great difference between
training and formation which comes into play here. Training is concerned about skills whereas
formation leads to an inner disposition. What we need first and foremost is a proper formation
which is not only reflected in a curriculum but rather in the spiritual formation and the personal
relationship and experience of the Lord. It really means to put on the body and soul of Christ in
relating with others, in our own “giving of self in love” (C+P 11). It is not measured first and
foremost in the ‘Doing’ but rather in the ‘Being’. Communication education in the seminary must start on the level of formation and develop from there. Placed into an overview one might see the different levels and concerns in the following way:

· Education > Knowledge
· Training > Skills: ‘Doing’
· Formation > inner disposition: ‘Being’

Proper communication education starts on the level of formation which is not only taught in
words and prescriptions but on the level of deep spirituality and faith and example. This must also be considered as a special concern in Asia because our Asian cultures are based and have their essential identity from their spirituality.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Needs and Possibilities for Communication Education in Seminaries

If the purpose of a seminary is to educate people for ministry one might first look into this
purpose a little bit deeper. The word “educare” has as its roots the Latin word “ducere’ which
means “to lead”, to give direction. “E-ducare” might therefore be interpreted as to “lead out”, to
give direction. It would mean to lead out of ignorance to knowledge and understanding.
Education thus might be interpreted as to prepare people for life and to equip them with the
knowledge and means necessary for life. It means for the Seminary to enable the students to
know where to go and what to do in their future work as ministers to the Word of God.

Education includes from elementary years reading and writing and other communication skills as essential for understanding and mastering life. When we talk about communication education in the Seminary and theological schools it is good to keep these basics in mind. Usually when we talk about “Communication Education” in the Seminary we think immediately of mass media or the modern means of communication which includes especially technical tools.
Most media courses or even those more general on communication aim at equipping the
seminarian in the use and technique of the modern means of communication for his/her ministry.

This, however, should not be the first purpose in the seminary. It should have been done already
at the college level before entering the seminary for graduate studies. Today it should be part of
any educational program to enable every student to critically judge and use the modern means of communication. This is part of the Communication/media education which in turn should be part of any school curriculum. It includes having a general knowledge about the ways and means
modern media operate like e.g the essential criteria to judge the quality of a news item, a TV
program or a film. It is to enable people to become informed and responsible recipients.

Communication Education in the seminary should be already on a more advanced level and
should be able to build on the general media education in college and elementary. Programs in the seminary should slowly lead the seminarian to the proper and active use of communication for ministry because s/he is part and parcel of the modern communication world. This, however,
includes not only modern means and technology. Proper communication preparation for ministry starts already long before and is based on the essentials of human communication.

Franz-Josef Eilers, svd

Organising and Managing your Research: A practical guide for

The expressed aim of the writers of this publication is to address a perceived gap in the research guidance market through a focus on organisational skills, management strategies and the consequent effectiveness and efficiency benefits for postgraduate researchers in systematising their practices of information and research. The text promotes the adoption of well selected, technology supported organisational methods in order to enhance project outcomes for researchers. The authors acknowledge the inclusion of a wealth of tips and strategies drawn from the accumulated experiences of academics, researchers and postgraduate students from universities in Australia, North America and Europe.

The book is structured for exploratory learning, with well placed graphics, templates, "screen captures" and reflection heuristics to provide readers with pause points for demonstration and contemplation. The writing style is succinct, explanatory and enabling in that it invites readers to understand and take charge of their research processes. The introductory chapters establish the value of the technical and organisational systems promoted in the text and explain the concepts and terms used throughout. Introductory statements in each chapter outline the purpose and content of the chapter and draw attention to related chapters. These early chapters focus on the immediate environment of the researcher – personal, physical and digital /electronic to enable readers to examine and evaluate their capabilities for research organisation and management and to suggest ways to manage ideas, time and support systems.
Key audiences for the book are postgraduate students and early career researchers, however the text is also well suited to support the mentoring and advisory work of HDR supervisors and academics teaching research methods. The writers emphasise the importance of postgraduate students being proactive in managing relationships with supervisors, mentors and peers. A series of well designed self assessment questionnaires accommodate a diversity of learning and management styles and provide stimulus for students, supervisors and research colleagues to identify, clarify and negotiate expectations and partnerships.

In addition the book addresses the organisational circumstances of researchers applying for grants and the management of the work of project teams with particular reference to the evaluation, selection and use of a range of project management software packages. A comparative table provides synopses of the program features and licensing requirements of selected software packages which support project design, proposal writing and the management of financial resources and timelines. Chapters concerned with researchers’ organisation and management of their literature promote the systematic planning of literature searches across multiple print and electronic information sources using critical evaluative approaches to information seeking and location. The scope of approaches includes using people resources such
as reference librarians, taking advantage of journal monitoring and table of contents services, and employing selected Web 2.0 tools such as RSS feeds which operate to seek out sources and information proactively. Strategic web searching and management of the literature are demonstrated in screen captures of search engine panels, bibliographic database structures and comparative evaluation of bibliographic software programs.

The data collection and analysis chapters outline the techniques, issues and challenges in gathering and recording qualitative and quantitative research data in multiple media and the importance of selecting data analysis processes or software appropriate to selected epistemological and methodological frameworks. Specific support for decisions on the selection of data analysis software – both qualitative and quantitative – is developed in tables with synopses of program features, licensing requirements and directions to online information. Significant value-adding for those who purchase this text is in the additional support provided in the website: Organising and Managing your Research which is hosted through Southern Cross University. Supplementary materials via the website include newly released information and content which is not included in the original publication, live links to online materials, software and templates for some of the organisational ideas presented in the book, and an ideas sharing forum with the authors and research community.

This publication offers pertinent and systematic guidance in the organising and managing of research using a variety of people and technology supports and is thoroughly recommended as a practical guide for postgraduates. Raylee Elliott Burns Queensland University of Technology
Helping doctoral students write: Pedagogies for supervision Barbara Kamler and Pat Thomson, Routledge, London and New York, 2006, 173 pages, ISBN 0 415 34684 3, AUD74.00 (paperback)

Have you ever wondered what advice you should give to doctoral students who turn out "turgid prose, badly structured arguments" or "laboured literature reviews" (p.1)? Or, are you a doctoral student who is worried about the pending submission of your thesis and whether your writing is going to be good enough for the examiners? In either case, Barbara Kamler and Pat Thomson’s book, Helping doctoral students write:

Pedagogies for supervision, offers something for you. Although the authors clearly target doctoral supervisors as their main audience, they also cater for doctoral students and, I would argue, for anyone who wants to reflect on, enhance, and engage in discussion about academic writing. The book begins with a theorisation of doctoral writing as a discursive social practice. Kamler and Thomson argue strongly that writing is not a set of decontextualised skills, but that it is an integral and important part of research. Indeed, their argument is that writing is research. And, as we all know, academics are represented and judged by their writing and successful academics have to be able to write well. An important part of doctoral study, then, is the "text work" that develops an academic or scholarly identity.

By conceptualising writing in this way, Kamler and Thomson argue that there is a need to move away from a notion of writing as "a set of arbitrary rules and matters of etiquette" (p.7) – and away from the pathologising of individual writers when their writing seems deficient – towards seeing the potential of "writing-centred supervision" (p. 9). They use the work of Norman Fairclough to frame the "writing" of a doctoral thesis – the production of text – within the teaching and learning relationships of students and supervisors, as well as within the institutional practices of universities and broader social, cultural and political contexts. The location of writing within those contexts means that Kamler and Thomson focus on complex processes and open up
discussion about the importance of pedagogical spaces for foregrounding thesis writing in the student-supervisor relationship.

Using this theoretical frame, the book offers chapters that focus on particular aspects of thesis writing. One of my favourites was the chapter with a memorable title – "Persuading an octopus into a glass" (Chapter 3). Drawing on a metaphor used by a doctoral student to describe the difficult task of "reviewing literatures", this chapter provides practical advice about the tricky tasks of doing "literature work" and the associated "identity work of becoming a scholar" (p. 34). It also teases out Kamler and Thomson’s rejection of the term "literature review" and their resolution to use the pluralised "literatures" in its place. Additionally, it suggests how supervisors might engage in dialogue with their students about the practice of academic writing and how they might work to co-construct texts with their students. Many of the ideas in this chapter resonated with the challenges I experienced when writing my own doctoral thesis and they have given me ideas about how I might work with the doctoral students I supervise. Several chapters (in particular Chapters 5-8) focus on specific linguistic features of academic texts, particularly those that will enable doctoral students to write with authority. These chapters provide a pedagogical and linguistic toolkit, with accompanying metalanguage, that supervisors can use when providing "guidance for revision" to their students (p.100). Using the systemic functional grammar of Michael Halliday, the authors identify some useful linguistic tools, including nominalisation and Theme. Whilst they recognise the panic that some supervisors and students may feel about the use of grammar and its metalanguage, they guide their readers effortlessly through accessible and useful explanations and examples.

In keeping with the book’s theoretical framing, these are not presented as decontextualised skills, but are discussed in the context of the supervisory processes conducted by the authors with their students. Much of the book discusses how doctoral supervisors and students might address issues around writing. The final chapter (Chapter 9), however, moves beyond "dialogue-based supervision practice" and the relationship between supervisor and student, and explores how "systemic attention to writing" can be of benefit at the institutional level (p.144). In looking at the broad context, as per their use of Fairclough’s model, Kamler and Thomson describe a range of strategies that they have used in faculty, university and cross-university contexts.

Throughout the book, Kamler and Thomson do their fair share of myth busting, presenting their concerns and critique about advice that has been offered in publications about thesis writing. Yet they don’t stop at critique. Their book offers practical pedagogical suggestions that supervisors and their students can try. Nevertheless, the authors are adamant that their book is not a "how to" manual. Instead, they "talk about things" that they have found useful and encourage others to "use or remake strategies for their own supervision contexts" (p.1). Examples from their own doctoral students and colleagues, with "before" and "after" examples of students’ texts, provide effective illustrations of how these strategies might work. Kamler and Thomson argue that it should be possible "to dip in and out of the chapters", rather than reading their book the whole way through (p.xi). They do, however, recommend that readers look at the first two chapters where they explicate the book’s underlying theories. Having read the book from front to back cover, I think I would have missed too much if I had been selective about which chapters or sections to read. I know, though, that I will return to particular sections and will use some as ways of opening up discussions about writing with my doctoral students. The book’s theoretical foundations resonated with my beliefs about writing and I loved reading a text that distanced itself from deficit stories about doctoral students who can’t write well.

Helping doctoral students write: Pedagogies for supervision is not a book that offers sure-fire solutions to writing a good doctoral thesis. However, it offers ways of facilitating dialogue between supervisors and their students about "the what" and "the how" of effective writing practices within academia, as well as suggesting ways of developing a writing culture within institutional contexts. This is a book that I plan to revisit.

Renata Phelps, Kath Fisher and Alan Ellis, Sage Publications, London, 2007,290 pages, ISBN 978 4129 2063 6 AUD159, ISBN 978 1429 2064, AUD44.95(paperback)

Robyn Henderson
University of Southern Queensland

Monday, February 8, 2010

Educational Leadership – Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

Another book on Educational Leadership – Yes, but this is different! Provocative and
thought provoking, this book provides an exposition of the challenges and ethical
tensions faced by educational leaders in the current Australian context. Based on a threeyear
research study, Duignan establishes the key challenges and ethical tensions that
often keep educational leaders awake at night and provides a comprehensive overview
of roles and ethical considerations as educational leadership deal with these tensions.
In the substantial literature on the topic of educational leadership, this book addresses
aspects of the educational leadership themes outlined in a resent article published in
Australian Educational Leader, that is, Current Issues in Educational Leadership: What
is the Literature saying? (Cranston et al 2007). In this article the authors cite nine
themes focused around the following:
• Paradoxes and tensions inherent in educational leadership;
• The activity of leadership;
• Relationship between educational leadership and context; and
• Leadership competencies, standards, qualities and capabilities.
Whilst the book explores aspects related to each of these four focus areas, the author
centres the work on what he describes as the basic challenge of educational leadership,
that is, the need for sound ethical and moral standards in how organisations are led and
decisions made. The author goes on to state that it is the:
Ethical and social responsibility of educational leaders to create the type
of learning environments in their schools that will assist students to
develop a healthier balance between their individual interests and the
common good. (p. 3)
The author spends considerable time exploring what he believes are the real issues
around schooling and hence challenge for leadership, that is, the over emphasis on
individual interests to the detriment of the common good. He argues that:
leaders need to regard it as their ethical responsibility to promote and
support policies and practices in their schools that better prepare students
to be faithful and responsible citizens who will not just accept the world
as it is but will help transform their communities into havens of hope,
promise and living witnesses of the common good. (p. 11)
This challenge, he believes requires authenticity in leadership, authenticity based on
a value-driven vision, authentic relationships, leading people in complex, messy and
emotional organisations. He argues that more than ever before there is a need for
leadership which builds hope and trust and translates vision into daily practices of
work. However, drawing on a three-year research study, Duignan found that the key
challenges are tensions where values and ethics are contested. The real challenges,
he argues, are those that keep leaders awake at night and result in leaders retiring
early, for example, common good or individual good; care and rules; service and
economic rationalism; and loyalty and honesty.
In a response to these challenges and tensions, the author develops and explains a
framework for analysing these tensions, the decisions often having to be made in
situations of paradox and tensions. A method for contextual based ethical decisionmaking
is provided for educational leaders to assist them in the process. He also puts
forward a view that such decision-making is assisted when leadership is shared,
indicating that there is "wisdom in the crowd" (p105). There is a need to build
organisational cultures that promote and support greater sharing and distribution.
Such cultures enable principals to engage in dialogue with other key stakeholders and
as such listen to diverse viewpoints. However this approach to "sharing wisdom" does
require a rethink by educational leaders and educational communities of what
educational leadership actually means and involves.
Duignan then explores the need for educational leaders to develop capabilities to
enable them to lead wisely, effectively and ethically in uncertain times. Capable
leaders, Duignan claims, are authentic leaders, in terms of their values, intentions,
practices and accomplishments (p127), that is, those that help infuse educational
practice with a higher purpose and meaning. This requires the promotion of core
values as well as focusing on ethics and morality in actions and interactions. Authentic
leaders help create conditions in which teachers and students take considerable
responsibility for the quality of their own teaching and learning (authentic learning).
He offers measures for leadership authenticity and presence. He teases out an
authentic leadership capabilities framework, based on personal, relational,
professional, and organisational capabilities that form the basis of a professional
development framework for principals, illustrating how this framework can be used
to assist in development of aspiring as well as experienced principals.
So apart from providing a comprehensive overview of Educational Leadership for
Australian school contexts, the book is designed as a learning tool. It is jargon free,
clearly written and encourages the practitioner/reader to relate the concepts and
issues raised in each chapter to his/her context by providing a section: Key ideas for
Reflection. Unlike much that is written on Educational Leadership, Duignan’s work
leaves the reader with thoughtful insights into the field of Educational Leadership.

Patrick Duignan, Cambridge University Press, Victoria, 2006, 176 pages,ISBN: 13 978-0-521-68512-2, paperback, AUD49.95

Dorothy Andrews.
University of Southern Queensland

Cranston, N., Ehrich, L., & Morton, L. (2007) Current issues in educational leadership:
What is the literature saying? Australian Educational Leader, 29(2), 10-13.

Education traditions and associated notions of quality

When thinking about the quality of education it is useful to distinguish between educational outcomes and the processes leading to them. People who seek particular, defined outcomes may rate quality in those terms, ranking educational institutions according to the extent to which their graduates meet ‘absolute’ criteria concerning, for example, academic achievement, sporting prowess, musical success, or pupil behaviour and values. The standard of comparison would be in some sense fixed, and separate from the values, wishes and opinions of the learners themselves. By contrast, relativist approaches emphasize that the perceptions, experiences and needs of those involved in the learning experience mainly determine its quality. Drawing on a business analogy, ‘client orientation’ in education puts strong emphasis upon whether a programme fits its purposes in ways that reflect the needs of those who use it. These different emphases have deep roots, and are reflected in major alternative traditions of educational thought.

Sunday, February 7, 2010

Humanist Approaches

The ideas that human nature is essentially good, that individual behaviour is autonomous (within the constraints of heredity and environment), that everyone is unique, that all people are born equal and subsequent inequality is a product of circumstance and that reality for each person is defined by himself or herself characterize a range of liberal humanist philosophers from Locke to Rousseau.10 Such principles, where accepted, have immediate relevance for educational practice. Learners, for humanists, are at the centre of ‘meaning-making’, which implies a relativist interpretation of quality. Education, strongly influenced by learner actions, is judged central to developing the potential of the child.11 The notion that acquisition of knowledge and skills requires the active participation of individual learners is a central link between humanism and constructivist learning theory. The latter was influenced strongly by the work of John Dewey, who emphasized the ways in which people learn how to construct their own meanings and to integrate theory and practice as a basis for social action.12 Piaget (1971) was also influential in developing a more ‘active’ and ‘participatory’ role for children in their learning.13 More recently, social constructivism,
which regards learning as intrinsically a social – and, therefore, interactive – process, has tended to supersede more conventional constructivist approaches.14 Box 1.6 summarizes the approach to education quality in the humanist tradition.

Adult Education Approaches

Adult education is frequently ignored in debates about education quality, but it has its share of behaviourist, humanist and critical approaches (see Box 1.10). Some writers, with roots in humanism and constructivism, emphasize the experience of adults as a central learning resource.25 Others see adult education as an essential part of socio-cultural, political and historical transformation.26 The latter view is most famously associated with literacy programmes and with the work of the radical theorist Paulo Freire, for whom education was an intensely important mechanism for awakening political awareness.27 His work urges adult educators not only to engage learners in dialogue, to name oppressive experiences, but also, through ‘problem posing’ and ‘conscientization’, to realize the extent to which they themselves have been influenced by repressive societal forces.

Saturday, February 6, 2010

Monitoring and Improving Quality

Given the diversity of understanding and interpretation of quality evident in the different traditions discussed above, defining quality and developing approaches to monitoring and improving it requires dialogue designed to achieve: broad agreement about the aims and objectives of education; a framework for the analysis of quality that enables its various dimensions to be specified; an approach to measurement that enables the important variables to be identified and assessed; a framework for improvement that comprehensively covers the interrelated components of the education system and allows opportunities for change and reform to be identified. As earlier sections of this chapter have indicated, cognitive development and the accumulation of particular values, attitudes and skills are important objectives of education systems in most societies. Their content may differ but their broad structure is similar throughout the world. This may suggest that in one sense the key to improving the quality of education – to helping education systems better achieve these objectives – could be equally universal. Considerable research has been directed towards this question in recent years. As Chapter 2 shows, however, the number of factors that can affect educational outcomes is so vast that straightforward relationships between the conditions of education and its products are not easy to determine. Nevertheless, it helps to begin by thinking about the main elements of education systems and how they interact. To this end, we might characterize the central dimensions influencing the core processes of teaching and learning as follows: learner characteristics dimension; contextual dimension; enabling inputs dimension; teaching and learning dimension. outcomes dimension. Figure 1.1 illustrates these dimensions and their relationships, and the following subsections discuss their characteristics and interactions.

Teaching and Learning

As Figure 1.1 indicates, the teaching and learning process is closely nested within the support system of inputs and other contextual factors. Teaching and learning is the key arena for human development and change. It is here that the impact of curricula is felt, that teacher methods work well or not and that learners are motivated to participate and learn how to learn. While the indirect enabling inputs discussed above are closely related to this dimension, the actual teaching and learning processes (as these occur in the classroom) include student time spent learning, assessment methods for monitoring student progress, styles of teaching, the language of instruction and classroom organization strategies.

Friday, February 5, 2010

Behaviourist Approaches

Behaviourist theory leads in the opposite direction to humanism. It is based on
manipulation of behaviour via specific stimuli. Behaviourism exerted a significant influence on educational reform during the first half of the twentieth century (Blackman, 1995). Its main tenets were that: Learners are not intrinsically motivated or able
to construct meaning for themselves. Human behaviour can be predicted and
controlled through reward and punishment. Cognition is based on the shaping of behaviour. Deductive and didactic pedagogies, such as graded tasks, rote learning and memorization, are helpful.Although few educationists accept the full behaviourist agenda in its pure form, elements of behaviourist practice can be observed in many
countries in teacher-training programmes,curricula and the ways teachers actually operate in classrooms. Forms of direct or structured instruction, which have an important place in this Report, share a key element with the behaviourist tradition: the belief that learning achievement must be monitored and that frequent feedback is crucial in motivating and guiding the learner. Box 1.7 summarizes the behaviourist approach to education quality.

Thursday, February 4, 2010

Educational Aims

Ronalds Doll notes that educational aims should address the intellectual or cognitive, the social personal or affective, and productive.

  1. Aims dealing with the intellectual dimension focus on the acquisition and comprehension of knowledge, problem-solving, skills and various level and methods of thinking.

  2. Aims int he social-personal dimension are concerned with person to society, person to person, and person to self interaction. These aims also subsume the emotional and psychological aspects of individuals and their adaptive aspects with regard to home, family, church, and local community.

  3. Aims relating to the productive dimension of schooling center on those aspects of education that allow the individual to function in the home, on the job, and as a citizen and member of the larger society.
To these dimensions, we would add four others:

  1. physical, dealing with the development and maintenance of strong and healthy

  2. aesthetics, dealing with values and appreciation of the arts

  3. moral, dealing with values and behavior that reflect appropriate behavior and belief in the divine and the view of transcendence.

Critical approaches

Over the final quarter of the twentieth century, several important critiques of the precepts of humanism and behaviourism emerged. Sociologists had already perceived society as a system of interrelated parts, with order and stability maintained by commonly held values.18 Since the role of education is to transmit these values, quality in this approach would be measured by the effectiveness of the processes of value transmission. In the latter part of the twentieth century, critics began to acknowledge these processes as highly political. Some neo- Marxist approaches characterized education in capitalist societies as the main mechanism for legitimizing and reproducing social inequality. Others, in the ‘new sociology of education’ movement of the 1970s and 1980s, focused their critiques on the role of the curriculum as a social and political means of transmitting power and knowledge. A separate group of critical writers, known as the ‘de-schoolers’, called for the abandonment of schooling in favour of more community-organized forms of formal education. Other critiques of orthodox approaches included various postmodern and feminist views.22 While the critical approaches encompass a vast array of philosophies, they share a concern that education tends to reproduce the structures and inequalities of the wider society. Though many retain the founding humanist principle that human development is the ultimate end of thought and action, they question the belief that universal schooling will result automatically in equal development of learners’ potential. As a reaction against this, advocates of an ‘emancipatory pedagogy’ suggested that ‘critical intellectuals’ should work to empower
marginalized students by helping them analyse their experience – and thus redress social inequality and injustice. Critical pedagogy, in this view, is emancipatory in the sense that it lets students find their own voices (Freire, 1985), frees them from externally defined needs (Giroux, 1993) and helps them to explore alternative ways
of thinking that may have been buried under dominant norms (McLaren, 1994). Box 1.8
outlines the key features of the critical approaches as regards education quality.

Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Approaches to Educational Objectives

Objectives, stated more specifically than goals, are designed to communicate to involved parties- students, teachers, laypersons- the intents of particular actions. However, diverse views exist regarding approachers to curriculum objective.

There are four Approaches to Educational Objectives:

  1. Behavioral Approaches - In the last three decades of the twentieth century, much attention as given to behavioral objectives. Although such objectives were rather new to educational dialogue, the theoretical basis for them was not, it was borrowed from behaviorist learning theory in psychology and from the concept of operationalize in science(by which people operationalize or give a tangible or observable condition to a particular learning or disposition of a human being).

  2. Humanistic Approaches - All educators realize that they are creating curricula for human beings. However, humanists believe that the function of the curriculum is to provide each learner with intrinsically rewarding experiences that will make for more complete living and more authentic lives.

  3. Managerial and System Approaches - The managerial approach and the systems approach are closely related. Thus, they are included to the formulation of objectives. These approaches represent a way of thinking that has its roots in the early scientific movement and behavioral to educational decision making. Both school managers and systems personnel rely on organizational theory and are sensitive to the interrelatedness of the units of departments of the organizations.

  4. Reconceptualism, Radicalism - According to William Pinar, reconceptualism, the movement that was in opposition to the mainstream approach to curriculum thinking and development, has become itself. Certainly, much reconceptualist thought has been woven into current curricularists' thinking, but to suggest that the other approaches, especially when thinking of creating objectives, have been replaced is to deny reality. Most curricula and objectives created for school follow the managerial and systems approaches.

Indigenous Approaches

Some important efforts to develop alternative educational ideas are rooted in the realities of lower-income countries and have often arisen as challenges to the legacies of colonialism. Prominent examples include the approaches of Mahatma Gandhi and Julius Nyerere, both of whom proposed new and alternative education systems with culturally relevant emphases on self-reliance, equity and rural employment. Such indigenous approaches challenged the ‘imported’ knowledge, images, ideas, values and beliefs reflected in mainstream curricula. A positive example of the alternatives offered, in curriculum terms, is in the field of mathematics. ‘Ethno-mathematicians’ claim that ‘standard’ mathematics is neither neutral nor objective, but culturally biaised and that alternative forms exist that have implications for teaching and learning.24 Box 1.9 presents some important features common to indigenous approaches.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Types of Educational Objectives

The difficulties of making such decisions attests to the need for teachers to be deeply engaged in determining and teaching to educational objectives. Teachers must make careful decisions about general curriculum objectives (subject or grade level), about unit objectives (classroom level), and lesson objectives (also classroom level). The intents of the curriculum at both the global and specific levels depend on the quality of education.

The three types of Education Objectives:

  1. Behavioral Objectives - For an objective to be meaningful, and therefore useful in guiding educators (regardless of whether it has been achieved), it should be measurable. To the extent that educators are unable to measure achievement, the meaningfulness of the objective is diminished. Put simply, this means that a behavioral objective is a precise statement of outcomes in terms observable behavior expected of students after instruction. Such an objective responds to the following question: What behavior can the learner engage int that will confirm that he or she grasps the knowledge or possesses the skills specified in the delivery of the curriculum?" Although some readers might conclude that all worth while learning must be stated behaviorally, the authors of this text believe that there are many learnings and attitude changes that are worth while for students to attain but cannot be precisely noted behaviorally. More on this is discussed under non behavioral general objectives. Suffice it to say, one cannot list in precise behavioral terms an increase in a student's sensitivity to others that must be met in order to quality as a "good person".

  2. Non behavioral General Objectives - Perhaps the greatest advantage of behavioral objectives is the clarity of communication they foster. People reading such objectives know precisely what they mean and can determine the extent to which they have been attained. But advocates of non behavioral objectives who use such words as "appreciate," "know," and "understand," contend that stating objectives too specifically restricts learning opportunistic to those situations that require measurement. Objectives that address higher-order learning (for example, analytic thinking and appreciating of literature) are likely to be eliminated because they frequently do not lend themselves measurement. Many opponents of behavioral objectives reject precise objectives as expressions of behaviorism. They insist that much learning can occur that does not result in overt, measurable pupil behavior. Learning in the affective domain is a more subtle form of learning.

  3. Means and Ends - Much of the argument between behaviorists and non behaviorists revolves around the nature of language. Just how precise must the language in education objectives be? Maurits Johnson and David Pratt make an interesting and useful distinction between educational intent and the realization of the intent. They note that many educators fall prey to the belief that the objective is in reality the statement that indicated its measure of achievement. They sate that an educational objective is rally a statement of intent, an expected end product, not an actual product.
By Ornstein & Hipkins

Guidelines for Formulating Educational Objectives

Because objective indicate endpoints or expected outcomes or points that lead to other significant outcomes or points in the educational process, careful thought must be given to the creation of educational objectives. Indeed, giving careful thought to objectives increases the probability that a particular thought program will be judged successful. Educators should consider the following factors when creating objectives.

  1. Matching- Objectives should relate to the goals and the aims from which they are derived. Many curriculum guides include objectives that, although perhaps having merit, are unrelated to the goals.

  2. Worth- It is often debatable which educational objectives have worth and which do not. Many schools overemphasize detail. especially in the skills subjects such as reading and mathematics.

  3. Wording- Objectives are only effective if the persons who are to use them as curriculum guides are able to understand from them the same intended outcomes as their writers.

  4. Appropriateness- Not all objectives need to be attained by all students. Curricularists must ask, What are the needs of the students?

  5. Logical Grouping- Objectives should be grouped logically so as to make sense when units of instruction and evaluation are being determined.

  6. Periodic Revision- No objectives should stand for all times; objectives require periodic revision. This is necessary because students change, society changes, the realm of knowledge changes, and instructional strategies change. Educators should occasionally analyze their objectives to determine if they are still of value to the program.

  7. Legality- The last factor to consider is that of the legality of the objective. Much of what the schools should teach is determined by forces external to the schools.
By Allan & Francis

Monday, February 1, 2010

Formulating Goals of Education

Goals, like aims, should have a degree of timelessness to them. That is, they should address the particular times in which educators find them selves, but should contain wording also appropriate for future times. Although goals address endpoints, they leave a certain degree of freedom in identifying the particulars of the goal. Actually, the particulars are considered in the educational objectives.

Creating educational goals is really a continuing activity in which educators engage as they consider the philosophies of their schools and work to clarify their educational aims. The needs of society, or of the particular community commonly give rise to initial statements of curriculum goals. When school districts have identified current students' learning and behaviors, they often match those with their views of what an educated person is. When persons analyze their philosophies and the aims of their schools, they comes up with general statements of outcomes- results they expect to occur in consequence to educational activity. People the make a final match between students' learning and behavior and the goals they have generated.

The goals are sometimes rank-ordered in light of importance of feasibility, or both. Persons involve in goal development-teacher,community members, and even students- are asked to decide if these are the goals they wish to address- if these are the endpoints towards which the program should strive. If they answer yes, then these goals are accepted by those who are creating the delivering the curriculum.

By Allan & Francis

Objective of Education

Within the context of educational aims and goals, it is necessary to formulate objectives that will indicate in more specific terms the outcomes of the curriculum of project being considered. Throughout much of our history, objectives have been sated vaguely; they are often confused with goals and aims.

To keep aims, goals, and objectives clearly separated,is is perhaps helpful to remind ourselves that in translating into goals and finally into objectives, we proceed from the very general, couched in a long-term framework, to the more specific, couched in a short-term time sequence. The sequence is illustrated as follows:

Philosophy - Aims - Goals - Objectives

For a particular science program or project, curriculum developers may state a goal such as "improving students' skill in information processing when dealing with science material." Under this foal, they must have a series of more specific objectives. How specific the objectives are will be determined by the philosophies and conceptions educator have regarding curriculum.